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When Jobs decided to build a state-of-the-art factory in Fremont to

When Jobs decided to build a state-of-the-art factory in Fremont to manufacture the Macintosh,

his aesthetic passions and controlling nature kicked into high gear. He wanted the machinery to

be painted in bright hues, like the Apple logo, but he spent so much time going over paint chips

that Apple’s manufacturing director, Matt Carter, finally just installed them in their usual beige and

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gray. When Jobs took a tour, he ordered that the machines be repainted in the bright colors he

wanted. Carter objected; this was precision equipment, and repainting the machines could cause

problems. He turned out to be right. One of the most expensive machines, which got painted bright

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blue, ended up not working properly and was dubbed “Steve’s folly.” Finally Carter quit. “It took so

much energy to fight him, and it was usually over something so pointless that finally I had enough,” he recalled.

be its salvation!” Levy pushed back. Rolling Stone was actually good, he said, and he asked Jobs

if he had read it recently. Jobs said that he had, an article about MTV that was “a piece of shit.”

Levy replied that he had written that article. Jobs, to his credit, didn’t back away from the assessment.

Instead he turned philosophical as he talked about the Macintosh. We are constantly benefiting from

advances that went before us and taking things that people before us developed, he said. “It’s a

wonderful, ecstatic feeling to create something that puts it back in the pool

of human experience and knowledge.”

Levy’s story didn’t make it to the cover. But in the future, every major product launch that Jobs was involved

in—at NeXT, at Pixar, and years later when he returned to Apple—would end

up on the cover of either Time, Newsweek, or Business Week.

January 24, 1984

Most of all, Jobs fretted about his presentation. Sculley fancied himself a good writer,

so he suggested changes in Jobs’s script. Jobs recalled being slightly annoyed, but their

relationship was still in the phase when he was lathering on flattery and stroking Sculley’s ego.

“I think of you just like Woz and Markkula,” he told Sculley. “You’re like one of the founders

of the company.

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They founded the company,

but you and I are

founding the future.”

Sculley lapped it up.

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One Sunday morning Jobs brought his father to see the factory.

One Sunday morning Jobs brought his father to see the factory. Paul Jobs had always been fastidious

about making sure that his craftsmanship was exacting and his tools in order, and his son was proud to

show that he could do the same. Coleman came along to give the tour. “Steve was, like, beaming,” she recalled.

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“He was so proud to show his father this creation.” Jobs explained how everything worked, and his father seemed

truly admiring. “He kept looking at his father, who touched everything

and loved how clean and perfect everything looked.”

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for example, that the Macintosh group could decide not to use Apple’s marketing team and instead create

one of its own.) No one else was in favor, but Jobs kept trying to ram it through. “People were looking

to me to take control, to get him to sit down and shut up, but I didn’t,” Sculley recalled. As the meeting

broke up, he heard someone whisper, “Why doesn’t Sculley shut him up?”

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As chairman of the company, Jobs went onstage first to start the shareholders’ meeting. He

did so with his own form of an invocation. “I’d like to open the meeting,” he said, “with a

twenty-year-old poem by Dylan—that’s Bob Dylan.” He broke into a little smile, then looked

down to read from the second verse of “The Times They Are a-Changin’.” His voice was high-pitched

as he raced through the ten lines, ending with “For the loser now / Will be later to win /

For the times they are a-changin’.” That song was the anthem that kept the multimillionaire board

chairman in touch with his counterculture self-image. He had a bootleg copy of his favorite version,

which was from the live concert Dylan performed, with Joan Baez, on Halloween 1964

at Lincoln Center’s Philharmonic Hall.

Sculley came onstage to report on the company’s earnings, and the audience started to become restless

as he droned on. Finally, he ended with a personal note. “The most important thing that has happened

to me in the last nine months at Apple has been a chance to develop a friendship with

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Steve Jobs,” he said.

“For me, the rapport

we have developed

means an awful lot.”

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For the time being, Jobs and Sculley were able to convince themselves

For the time being, Jobs and Sculley were able to convince themselves that their friendship

was still strong. They professed their fondness so effusively and often that they sounded

like high school sweethearts at a Hallmark card display. The first anniversary of Sculley’s

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arrival came in May 1984, and to celebrate Jobs lured him to a dinner party at Le Mouton

Noir, an elegant restaurant in the hills southwest of Cupertino. To Sculley’s surprise, Jobs had

gathered the Apple board, its top managers, and even some East Coast investors. As they all

congratulated him during cocktails, Sculley recalled, “a beaming Steve stood in the background,

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nodding his head up and down and wearing a Cheshire Cat smile on his face.” Jobs began the

dinner with a fulsome toast. “The happiest two days for me were when Macintosh shipped and

when John Sculley agreed to join Apple,” he said. “This has been the greatest year I’ve ever had

in my whole life, because I’ve learned so much from John.” He then presented Sculley with a

montage of memorabilia from the year.

shrieks that erupted. Instead of basking for a moment, it barreled ahead. “Unaccustomed as I am

to public speaking, I’d like to share with you a maxim I thought of the first time I met an IBM

mainframe: Never trust a computer you can’t lift.” Once again the roar almost drowned out its

final lines. “Obviously, I can talk. But right now I’d like to sit back and listen. So it is with

considerable pride that I introduce a man who’s been like a father to me, Steve Jobs.”

Pandemonium erupted, with people in the crowd jumping up and down and pumping their fists

in a frenzy. Jobs nodded slowly, a tight-lipped but broad smile on his face, then looked down

and started to choke up. The ovation continued for five minutes.

After the Macintosh team returned to Bandley 3 that afternoon, a truck pulled into the parking

lot and Jobs had them all gather next to it. Inside were a hundred new Macintosh computers, each

personalized with a plaque. “Steve presented them one at a time to each team member, with a

handshake and a smile, as the rest of us stood around cheering,” Hertzfeld recalled. It had been a

grueling ride, and many egos had been bruised by Jobs’s obnoxious and rough management style.

But neither Raskin nor Wozniak nor Sculley nor anyone else at the company could have pulled off the

creation of the Macintosh. Nor would it likely have emerged from focus groups and committees.

On the day he unveiled the Macintosh, a reporter from Popular Science asked Jobs what type

of market research he had done. Jobs responded by scoffing, “Did Alexander

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Graham Bell do any

market research

before he invented

the telephone?”

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Byfeibisi

hated the way the animation scrolled across the Macintosh

At the rehearsal the night before the launch, nothing was working well. Jobs

hated the way the animation scrolled across the Macintosh screen, and he kept

ordering tweaks. He also was dissatisfied with the stage lighting, and he directed

Sculley to move from seat to seat to give his opinion as various adjustments

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were made. Sculley had never thought much about variations of stage lighting

and gave the type of tentative answers a patient might give an eye doctor

when asked which lens made the letters clearer. The rehearsals and changes

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went on for five hours, well into the night. “He was driving people insane,

getting mad at the stagehands for every glitch in the presentation,”

Sculley recalled. “I thought there was no way we were going to get it

done for the show the next morning.”

a bushy beard, wild hair, goofy grin, and twinkling eyes named Lee Clow, who was the

creative director of the agency’s office in the Venice Beach section of Los Angeles. Clow

was savvy and fun, in a laid-back yet focused way, and he forged a bond

with Jobs that would last three decades.

Clow and two of his team, the copywriter Steve Hayden and the art director Brent Thomas,

had been toying with a tagline that played off the George Orwell novel: “Why 1984 won’t be like

1984.” Jobs loved it, and asked them to develop it for the Macintosh launch. So they put together

a storyboard for a sixty-second ad that would look like a scene from a sci-fi movie. It featured a

rebellious young woman outrunning the Orwellian thought police and throwing a

sledgehammer into a screen showing a mind-controlling speech by Big Brother.

The concept captured the zeitgeist of the personal computer revolution. Many young people,

especially those in the counterculture, had viewed computers as instruments that could be used by

Orwellian governments and giant corporations to sap individuality. But by the end of the 1970s,

they were also being seen as potential tools for personal empowerment. The ad cast Macintosh

as a warrior for the latter cause—a cool, rebellious, and heroic company that was the only thing

standing in

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the way of the big evil

corporation’s plan for

world domination

and total mind control.

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On the morning that he and his teammates completed the

On the morning that he and his teammates completed the software for the Macintosh,

Andy Hertzfeld had gone home exhausted and expected to stay in bed for at least a day.

But that afternoon, after only six hours of sleep, he drove back to the office. He wanted to

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check in to see if there had been any problems, and most of his colleagues had done the same.

They were lounging around, dazed but excited, when Jobs walked in. “Hey, pick yourselves

up off the floor, you’re not done yet!” he announced. “We need a demo for the intro!” His plan

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was to dramatically unveil the Macintosh in front of a large audience and have it show off some

of its features to the inspirational theme from Chariots of Fire. “It needs to be done by the weekend,

to be ready for the rehearsals,” he added. They all groaned, Hertzfeld recalled, “but as we talked

we realized that it would be fun to cook up something impressive.”

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evoked the dystopian aura of Blade Runner. Just at the moment when Big Brother announces

“We shall prevail!” the heroine’s hammer smashes the screen and it vaporizes

in a flash of light and smoke.

When Jobs previewed the ad for the Apple sales force at the meeting in Hawaii, they

were thrilled. So he screened it for the board at its December 1983 meeting. When the

lights came back on in the boardroom, everyone was mute. Philip Schlein, the CEO of

Macy’s California, had his head on the table. Mike Markkula stared silently; at first it

seemed he was overwhelmed by the power of the ad. Then he spoke: “Who wants to

move to find a new agency?” Sculley recalled, “Most of them thought it was the worst

commercial they had ever seen.” Sculley himself got cold feet. He asked Chiat/Day to

sell off the two commercial spots—one sixty seconds, the other

thirty—that they had purchased.

Jobs was beside himself. One evening Wozniak, who had been floating into and out of

Apple for the previous two years, wandered into the Macintosh building. Jobs grabbed

him and said, “Come over here and look at this.” He pulled out a VCR and played the ad.

“I was astounded,” Woz recalled. “I thought it was the most incredible thing.” When Jobs

said the board had decided not to run it during the Super Bowl, Wozniak asked what the

cost of the time slot was. Jobs told him $800,000. With his usual

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impulsive goodness,

Wozniak immediately

offered, “Well, I’ll

pay half if you will.”

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At the end of the presentation someone asked whether he thought

At the end of the presentation someone asked whether he thought they should do some market research

to see what customers wanted. “No,” he replied, “because customers don’t know what they want until

we’ve shown them.” Then he pulled out a device that was about the size of a desk diary.

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“Do you want to see something neat?” When he flipped it open, it turned out to be a mock-up

of a computer that could fit on your lap, with a keyboard and screen hinged together like a notebook.

“This is my dream of what we will be making in the mid-to late eighties,” he said.

They were building a company that would invent the future.

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York get this story and say, “We can’t make this guy Man of the Year.” That really

hurt. But it was a good lesson. It taught me to never get too excited about things

like that, since the media is a circus anyway. They FedExed me the magazine, and

I remember opening the package, thoroughly expecting to see my mug on the cover,

and it was this computer sculpture thing. I thought, “Huh?” And then I read

the article, and it was so awful that I actually cried.

In fact there’s no reason to believe that Moritz was jealous or that he intended his

reporting to be unfair. Nor was Jobs ever slated to be Man of the Year, despite what

he thought. That year the top editors (I was then a junior editor there) decided early

on to go with the computer rather than a person, and they commissioned, months in

advance, a piece of art from the famous sculptor George Segal to be a gatefold cover image.

Ray Cave was then the magazine’s editor. “We never considered Jobs,” he said. “

You couldn’t personify the computer, so that was the first time we decided to go

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with an inanimate object.

We never searched

around for a face to

be put on the cover.”

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As the Macintosh team grew, it moved from Texaco Towers to the

As the Macintosh team grew, it moved from Texaco Towers to the main Apple buildings on Bandley

Drive, finally settling in mid-1983 into Bandley 3. It had a modern atrium lobby with video games,

which Burrell Smith and Andy Hertzfeld chose, and a Toshiba compact disc stereo system with

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MartinLogan speakers and a hundred CDs. The software team was visible from the lobby in a fishbowl-like glass

enclosure, and the kitchen was stocked daily with Odwalla juices. Over time the atrium attracted even more

toys, most notably a B?sendorfer piano and a BMW motorcycle that Jobs felt would inspire

an obsession with lapidary craftsmanship.

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a philosophical component, one that was related to his penchant for

control. He believed that for a computer to be truly great, its hardware

and its software had to be tightly linked. When a computer was open

to running software that also worked on other computers, it would end

up sacrificing some functionality. The best products, he believed, were

“whole widgets” that were designed end-to-end, with the software closely

tailored to the hardware and vice versa. This is what would distinguish the

Macintosh, which had an operating system that worked only on its own

hardware, from the environment that Microsoft was creating, in which its

operating system could be used on hardware made by many different companies.

“Jobs is a strong-willed, elitist artist who doesn’t want his creations mutated

inauspiciously by unworthy programmers,” explained ZDNet’s editor

Dan Farber. “It would be as if someone off the street added some

brush strokes to a Picasso painting or changed the lyrics to a Dylan song.”

In later years Jobs’s whole-widget approach would distinguish the iPhone,

iPod, and iPad from their competitors. It resulted in awesome products.

But it was not always the best strategy for dominating a market. “

From the first Mac to the latest iPhone, Jobs’s systems have always

been sealed shut to prevent consumers

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from meddling and

modifyingthem,”

noted Leander Kahney,

author of Cult of the Mac.

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Jobs kept a tight rein on the hiring process. The goal was

Jobs kept a tight rein on the hiring process. The goal was to get people who were creative,

wickedly smart, and slightly rebellious. The software team would make applicants play Defender,

Smith’s favorite video game. Jobs would ask his usual offbeat questions to see how well the

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applicant could think in unexpected situations. One day he, Hertzfeld, and Smith interviewed a

candidate for software manager who, it became clear as soon as he walked in the room, was too

uptight and conventional to manage the wizards in the fishbowl. Jobs began to toy with him

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mercilessly. “How old were you when you lost your virginity?” he asked.

“I guess I’m not the right guy,” the poor man said as he got up to leave.

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so that the Macintosh case could not be opened with a regular screwdriver. “We’re going

to design this thing so nobody but Apple employees can get inside this box,” he told Cash.

Jobs also decided to eliminate the cursor arrow keys on the Macintosh keyboard. The only

way to move the cursor was to use the mouse. It was a way of forcing old-fashioned users

to adapt to point-and-click navigation, even if they didn’t want to. Unlike other product

developers, Jobs did not believe the customer was always right; if they wanted to resist

using a mouse, they were wrong.

There was one other advantage, he believed, to eliminating the cursor keys: It forced

outside software developers to write programs specially for the Mac operating system,

rather than merely writing generic software that could be ported to a variety of computers.

That made for the type of tight vertical integration

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For all of his obnoxious behavior, Jobs also had the ability to instill in his team an esprit de corps.

After tearing people down, he would find ways to lift them up and make them feel that being part

of the Macintosh project was an amazing mission. Every six months he would take

most of his team on a two-day retreat at a nearby resort.

between application

software,operating

systems, and hardware

devices that Jobs liked.

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Unfortunately for Apple, Jobs also took aim at another perceived

Unfortunately for Apple, Jobs also took aim at another perceived competitor to his

Macintosh: the company’s own Lisa. Partly it was psychological. He had been

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ousted from that group, and now he wanted to beat it. He also saw healthy

rivalry as a way to motivate his troops. That’s why he bet John Couch

$5,000 that the Mac would ship before the Lisa.

Reed had only one thousand students, half the number at Homestead High. It was known for its free-spirited hippie lifestyle, which combined somewhat uneasily with its rigorous academic standards and core curriculum. Five years earlier Timothy

Leary, the guru of psychedelic enlightenment, had sat cross-legged at the Reed College commons while on his League for Spiritual Discovery (LSD) college tour, during which he exhorted his listeners, “Like every great religion of the past we seek

to find the divinity within. . . . These ancient goals we define in the metaphor of the present—turn on, tune in, drop out.” Many of Reed’s students took all three of those injunctions seriously; the dropout rate during the 1970s was more than one-third.

When it came time for Jobs to matriculate in the fall of 1972, his parents drove him up to Portland, but in another small act of rebellion he refused to let them come on

campus. In fact he refrained from even saying good-bye or thanks. He recounted the moment later with uncharacteristic regret:

It’s one of the things in life I really feel ashamed about. I was not very sensitive, and I hurt their feelings. I shouldn’t have. They had done so much to make sure I could go there, but I just didn’t want them around. I didn’t want anyone to know I had parents. I wanted to be like an orphan who

had bummed around the country

on trains and just arrived

out of nowhere, with no roots,

no connections, no background.

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The problem was that the rivalry became unhealthy. Jobs repeatedly

The problem was that the rivalry became unhealthy. Jobs repeatedly portrayed his band

of engineers as the cool kids on the block, in contrast to

the plodding HP engineer types working on the Lisa.

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Midway through the summer, Jobs was almost killed when his red Fiat caught fire.

He was driving on Skyline Boulevard in the Santa Cruz Mountains with a high school friend, Tim Brown, who looked back, saw flames coming from the engine, and

casually said to Jobs, “Pull over, your car is on fire.” Jobs did. His father, despite their arguments, drove out to the hills to tow the Fiat home.

In order to find a way to make money for a new car, Jobs got Wozniak to drive him to De Anza College to look on the help-wanted bulletin board. They discovered that the Westgate Shopping Center in San Jose was seeking college students who could

dress up in costumes and amuse the kids. So for $3 an hour, Jobs, Wozniak, and Brennan donned heavy full-body costumes and headgear to play Alice in Wonderland, the Mad Hatter, and the White Rabbit. Wozniak, in his earnest and

sweet way, found it fun. “I said, ‘I want to do it, it’s my chance, because I love children.’ I think Steve looked at it as a lousy job, but I looked at it as a fun

adventure.” Jobs did indeed find it a pain. “It was hot, the costumes were heavy, and after a while I felt like I wanted to smack some of the kids.” Patience was never one of his virtues.

Reed College

Seventeen years earlier, Jobs’s parents had made a pledge when they adopted him: He would go to college. So they had worked hard and saved dutifully for his college fund, which was modest but adequate by the time he graduated. But Jobs, becoming

ever more willful, did not make it easy. At first he toyed with not going to college at all. “I think I might have headed to New York if I didn’t go to college,” he recalled, musing on how different his world—and perhaps all of ours—might have been if he

had chosen that path. When his parents pushed him to go to college, he responded in a passive-aggressive way. He did not consider state schools, such as Berkeley,

where Woz then was, despite the fact that they were more affordable. Nor did he look at Stanford, just up the road and likely to offer a scholarship. “The kids who went to Stanford, they already knew what they wanted to do,

” he said. “They weren’

t really artistic. I wanted

something that was more

artistic and interesting.”

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